Housing construction consists of a broad set of relationships within it (e.g., between house builders and between builders and building workers) as well as outside of it (e.g., between house builders, financiers, land developers, and the ultimate consumers).
The term ‘external works’ describes any works carried out to the external environment of a building project. These can be works to functional or aesthetic features.
Drainage is the artificial removal of water, both surface and sub-surface. Drainage is often a major element of civil engineering and construction projects and is necessary to avoid flooding and other damage.
Retaining walls are vertical or near-vertical structures designed to retain material on one side, preventing it from collapsing or slipping or preventing erosion.
A foundation is a lower portion of building structure that transfers its gravity loads to the earth. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow foundations and deep foundations. A tall building must have a strong foundation if it is to stand for a long time.
Bulk earthworks include the removal, moving or adding of large quantities of soil or rock from a particular area to another. Bulk earthworks are mainly performed in two ways: by cutting into or excavating an area of ground.